Les Besoins Artificiels
Author: Razmig Keucheyan
In the era of eco and climate crisis, consumption in our part of the world must go down. The question of what we really need is therefore urgent.
Swiss Marxist Razmig Keucheyan (b. 1975), professor of sociology at the University of Bordeaux, has in the book Les Besoins Artificiels undertook the difficult task of distinguishing between authentic and unnecessary needs. He states that capitalist production and consumption are the main causes of the environmental crisis. By distinguishing between false and true needs, he imposes capitalism with a sustainable need structure. Through dialogue and democracy, we jointly decide what are real needs – the needs are not «ontological». Keucheyan does not want an authoritarian Marxism where the bureaucracy decides what citizens need and recalls the Hungarian philosopher Agnes Heller’s (1929-2019) criticism of the Soviet Union as a «dictatorship over needs».
Keucheyan’s own nostalgic utopia is attached to the Paris Commune. When he dreams of what the world will look like in a post-capitalist society, he is blue-eyed: The distinction between manual and intellectual work must be abolished; people will be able to spend more time reflecting on their qualitative needs, and people should be …
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